Ever wonder what it takes to keep MBL scientists working away? Here’s a clue, in the form of a time-lapse video of the daily upkeep required for the many zebrafish being studied at the MBL this summer. University of Chicago undergraduates Melissa Li and Clara Kao pressed “go” on a video camera and then went about their daily routine of feeding, cleaning, and generally caring for all the fish in the Zebrafish Facility. “We basically make sure everyone is happy and healthy,” Kao says. The 24-second video went up on a blog they’re keeping on their summer of research at the MBL: Summer People, Some Are Not (tagline: Some Are Zebrafish).

These two rising juniors are working in Jonathan Gitlin’s lab this summer, a change from the labs they work in back in Chicago. “When you switch labs for the summer, you get a different sort of snippet of the scientific world,” Li says. Both are interested in coming back to the MBL after the summer is over- Kao is in fact here for her second summer, and is interested in coming back for the Physiology course. With any luck, the blog and video collection will get a chance to expand.

Take a look at the eye-popping, deep-sea exploration footage in this video about the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI). Julie Huber, associate director of the MBL’s Bay Paul Center, is also associate director of C-DEBI, a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center at the University of Southern California.

The researchers involved with this collaborative national center, Huber says, are asking the “big questions” about life in the deep ocean and below the seafloor. “We are at the exponential exploratory phase,” says Huber, who is on the pioneering edge of discovering subterranean microbial life.

This video was produced by Mira Zimet at USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.

By Laurel Hamers

Our arms and legs normally work so fluidly that we may forget that their size and location were determined by complex genetic control during early development.

Keys to the precise regulatory ballet that makes our limbs look the way they do may be found in a seemingly dissimilar group of organisms: sharks and skates.


Skates in the MBL’s Marine Resources Center. Photo credit: Laurel Hamers

Cartilaginous fish like sharks and skates are the oldest fish to have pectoral fins:  paired appendages that are the evolutionary predecessor of our arms. Tetsuya Nakamura, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Chicago, is spending the summer at the MBL investigating these cartilaginous fish. He hopes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the diversity of fin shapes in this single group of fish and, on a broader scale, the evolution of appendage shapes across species.

“The best way to understand the diversity of fin types is to study an extremely strange fish, like the skate,” says Nakamura. “The pectoral fins of skate are very wide—they’re totally different from other animals.”

Nakamura is focusing on Hox genes, which control body patterning during embryonic development; they are responsible, for example, for making sure your arms attach below your shoulders and not out the top of your head. Researchers can manipulate individual Hox genes and readily see structural differences in the body parts influenced by that gene.

By comparing expression patterns of Hox genes in the fins of skates and closely related sharks, Nakamura is identifying specific genes that may be responsible for the skate’s elongated pectoral fins compared to the shark’s narrower ones. He will then manipulate the expression of these genes in an attempt to alter fin shape.

The blue lines show the cartilage structure in the fins of two fish. Note the shark's narrow fins compared to the skate's wide, fan-like ones. Photo credit: Tetsuya Nakamura, composite image by Laurel Hamers

The blue lines show the cartilage structure in the fins of two fish. Note the shark’s narrow fins compared to the skate’s wide, fan-like ones. Photo credit: Tetsuya Nakamura, composite image by Laurel Hamers

“My opinion is that fin width is very important in deciding fin shape,” he says. “If I can control fin width, for example, to make narrower fin bases in skate, I think their fin shape would be like a shark’s.”

Nakamura, who is spending his first summer at MBL, is a member of Neil Shubin’s lab in the Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy at UChicago.

The breadth and mysteries of Julie Huber’s research—from exploring the dark, peaceful ocean depths to mining enormous data sets about the microbes that live there—are captured in this video profile by Geoff Wyman of Falmouth. Huber describes her background growing up in the Midwest, and how her love for the ocean eventually led to a fascination with marine microbes and how they power the planet’s elemental cycles. Today, Huber dives to deep-sea environments around the world to collect samples of fluids from underwater volcanoes, which she analyzes back at the MBL to discover the microbial communities that can thrive under such extreme environmental conditions.

Huber is associate director of the MBL’s Josephine Bay Paul Center, and is also associate director of the National Science Foundation’s Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations at the University of Southern California.

Many thanks to Geoff Wyman for producing this video, the first in a series of profiles of MBL scientists.

A whimsical, enlightening video about cuttlefish camouflage by Jacob Gindi, a senior and biology major at Brown University, appeared in The New York Times last week. Gindi had encountered live cuttlefish when he visited the MBL’s Marine Resources Center as a student in The Art and Science of Visual Perception, a Brown course co-taught by Roger Hanlon of the MBL and Mark Milloff of Rhode Island School of Design. Gindi then had a chance to make a CreatureCast video in Casey Dunn’s Invertebrate Zoology class at Brown. Inspired by Hanlon’s research, Gindi’s artful video about the cuttlefish’s amazingly adaptive skin can be enjoyed by marine biology-lovers of all ages.

“It is so gratifying to see science and art promoted at this national/international scale,” says Hanlon, an MBL senior scientist and professor in Brown’s Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department through the Brown-MBL Partnership and Graduate Program.

CreatureCast, a collaborative blog produced by members of the Dunn Lab, is supported by a National Science Foundation grant.



Next Page »