By Rachel Buhler

Two journalists who received fellowships from the MBL Logan Science Journalism Program are spending the next week with scientists pursuing environmental field research at Toolik Field Station in Arctic Alaska, including studies of global climate change.

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Michael Werner and Meera Subramanian at the Arctic Circle, 150 miles north of Fairbanks.

The two fellows, freelance journalist Meera Subramanian and freelance journalist/ filmmaker Michael Werner, both attended the program’s hands-on course at the MBL in June, undertaking field and laboratory research to “step into the shows of the scientists they cover.”  Last Tuesday, they flew into Fairbanks, Alaska, as the starting point for their journey to Toolik, which entails a minimum eight-hour drive and a passage across the Arctic Circle.

Subramanian has been blogging  — with striking photos and videos of the Arctic tundra and its scientist inhabitants — on the program’s blog, “A Toolik Field Journal.”

Over the years, the Logan Science Journalism Program has granted fellowships to hundreds of journalists from prominent news organizations, including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Science, National Public Radio, The Washington Post, USA Today, CNN, and Scientific American. Journalists from Africa, Brazil, Sweden, India, Japan, the United Kingdom and other countries have also received fellowships.

One of the largely unexplored habitats on Earth lies under the ocean: the sediments, rocks, and fluids layered under the pressure of a gigantic basin of water. What lives down there, and how deep does life go? What strategies do microbes have for surviving in this environment? MBL Associate Scientist Julie Huber is among the people asking these questions, and this week she contributes a commentary in the journal Science on a team’s discovery of the deepest subseafloor life yet.

Julie Huber. Credit: Diana Kenney

Julie Huber. Credit: Diana Kenney

Using a drilling system aboard a research vessel off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan, the international team “drilled the deepest scientific borehole to date to examine the abundance, taxonomic composition, and biosignatures of subseafloor microbial communities in sediments from 400 to almost 2,500 meters (about 1.5 miles) beneath the seafloor,” Huber writes. They detected microbial life at all depths, including methane-producing archaea in deeply buried coal-bed deposits.

As expected from prior studies, the concentration of microbes decreased steadily with depth in the shallow subseafloor layers. However, microbes were scarce–barely detectable—below about 1,500 meters. This was surprising, given that temperatures in the deep samples didn’t exceed ~60 degrees C, “well within the growth range of most microbes,” and “both carbon and hydrogen are plentiful energy sources, particularly in the coal bed layers,” Huber writes.

“Why so little life, then?” Huber writes. “It is difficulties with biomolecule repair, as the authors suggest, or something else like porosity or pressure? Uncovering what limits the biomass in this unusual environment will certainly be a focus of future studies.”

Huber is associate director of the MBL’s Josephine Bay Paul Center, as well as associate director of the NSF Science and Technology Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI).

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Huber JA (2015) Making methane down deep. Science 349: 376-377.

Inagaki F et al (2015) Exploring deep microbial life in coal-bearing sediment down to ~2.5 km below the ocean floor. Science 349: 420-424.

Article in The Washington Post quoting Huber on Inagaki et al.

Ever wonder what it takes to keep MBL scientists working away? Here’s a clue, in the form of a time-lapse video of the daily upkeep required for the many zebrafish being studied at the MBL this summer. University of Chicago undergraduates Melissa Li and Clara Kao pressed “go” on a video camera and then went about their daily routine of feeding, cleaning, and generally caring for all the fish in the Zebrafish Facility. “We basically make sure everyone is happy and healthy,” Kao says. The 24-second video went up on a blog they’re keeping on their summer of research at the MBL: Summer People, Some Are Not (tagline: Some Are Zebrafish).

http://summerpeoplesomearenot.tumblr.com/post/123742373728/the-daily-grind


These two rising juniors are working in Jonathan Gitlin’s lab this summer, a change from the labs they work in back in Chicago. “When you switch labs for the summer, you get a different sort of snippet of the scientific world,” Li says. Both are interested in coming back to the MBL after the summer is over- Kao is in fact here for her second summer, and is interested in coming back for the Physiology course. With any luck, the blog and video collection will get a chance to expand.

By Kelsey Calhoun

The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not “Eureka” but “That’s funny…”
—Isaac Asimov (1920–1992)

The process of science is rarely predictable: there are some 180s, some hard left turns, and quite a few long and winding roads. Graduate student Drew Friedmann can attest to this fact: a year and a half ago he was pursuing a completely different research topic and getting nowhere. But it was at the end of some long and frustrating months that he uttered some of the most exciting words you can hear from a scientist: “That’s funny,” or more specifically in this case, “Zebrafish don’t see with their tails.”

Primary motor neurons fluorescing in the young zebrafish, home to the unexpected VALopA Photo cred: D. Friedmann & Isacoff Lab

Primary motor neurons fluorescing in the young zebrafish, home to the unexpected VALopA. Photo credit: D. Friedmann & Isacoff Lab

Friedmann, a 2015 Grass Fellow at the MBL, had originally set out to study what controls the movement of zebrafish. These two-inch-long fish are widely studied, partly because they are transparent when young, making it easy to track their development. Ehud Isacoff’s lab at University of California-Berkeley, where Friedmann is a graduate student, has mapped the flow of calcium—a proxy for neuronal activity—in the nerve cells of developing zebrafish as they move.

Taking this further, Friedmann hoped to focus on how these young fish manage to move by looking at their gap junctions, the direct connections between cells which help them talk to one other. But there are over 30 different types of building blocks, called connexins, that make up these gap junctions, and few clues as to which ones help control movement as the zebrafish develop. Friedmann spent a long, frustrating year tackling this question with different tools and methods, without getting many interesting results.

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One day, he tried genetics. Analyzing only the neurons controlling movement in zebrafish tails—the most motile part of the fish—yielded a long list of active genes. One gene on the list, VALopA, caught Friedmann’s eye, because it codes for an opsin, a light-sensitive protein usually only found in eyes. “I went, what is that doing here?” Friedmann remembered. “There are no eyes in the sample!”

The “that’s funny” moment seemed odd enough to merit a little digging. “I’ll just flash some lights and see what happens,” Friedmann thought. The Isacoff lab uses a plethora of microscopes to track the flow of calcium around zebrafish, including a bright green laser. “I was expecting to flash the laser and see a calcium event,” Friedmann explained. But no such luck—light was not stimulating the neurons, embedded with light-sensitive proteins, to fire. Frustrated, Friedmann tried for a while longer, and finally noticed something else odd. If these neurons really didn’t respond to light at all, there should have been a random calcium spike or two right after a light flash, but there wasn’t. There was never a spike after a light flash; instead, the light was actually inhibiting the neurons from firing.

Motor neurons innervating the zebrafish tail Photo credit: D. Friedmann & Isacoff Lab

Motor neurons innervating the zebrafish tail
Photo credit: D. Friedmann & Isacoff Lab

This presents a whole new unexpected puzzle: Why are light-sensitive, movement-controlling neurons inhibited by light? “This opens up two, maybe three big questions,” Friedmann says. “One is how, one is why, and one is how common is this?” Zebrafish always lay their eggs at sunrise, so their development may be affected by light and movement, making it evolutionarily advantageous for the two to be linked. Friedmann’s goal this summer at MBL is to figure out what other cells and systems these light-sensitive neurons are connected to, and trace the full circuit involved in light response. He’s supported at the MBL by a Grass Foundation fellowship, which are given to early-career scientists to carry out independent, investigator-designed projects. The Grass Lab at MBL provides space, cutting-edge equipment, supplies, and housing, so young scientists can spend a summer dedicated to experimentation.

The ability to detect light evolved before eyes, Friedmann explains, and when eyes did evolve, there was no reason to get rid of the old way of sensing light, especially for transparent creatures like zebrafish. These light-sensitive neurons may be heavily involved in healthy zebrafish development and behavior, paving Friedmann’s winding road with all sorts of interesting questions.

The family, friends, and colleagues of Catherine N. Norton (1941-2014), former director of the MBLWHOI Library, gathered in Lillie Auditorium on June 19 to honor her memory. As befitting Norton, who was ever-positive and energetic, the event was inspiring, enlightening, and celebratory of her life, family, and pioneering professional accomplishments.

Family, friends and colleagues of Cathy Norton gathered in Lillie Auditorium to celebrate her life. Credit: Tom Kleindinst

Cathy Norton’s family, friends, and colleagues gathered in Lillie Auditorium to share stories of her life and great contributions to library science. Credit: Tom Kleindinst

Speakers at the celebration honored Norton’s vision and vibrancy, and her major legacy to the library sciences worldwide through her prescient leadership in establishing digital collections, databases, and informatics tools at the MBLWHOI Library. Excerpts from the speakers’ remarks are below.

Diane Rielinger, co-director of the MBLWHOI Library, announced the Catherine N. Norton Endowed Fellowship, which has received donations from more than 110 family members, friends, and colleagues. This endowed fund will support projects by students or early-career fellows that use the MBLWHOI Library or Archives and uphold the principles Norton championed by being “openly accessible, collaborative, innovative, connective, and laying the foundation for new scientific knowledge.”

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Cathy always made sure we thought big. She encouraged us to see only opportunities—there were never problems. She didn’t just embrace technology; she pushed it forward with innovative programs that increased access and discovery, such as the Biodiversity Heritage Library. Cathy made sure our library was the first one out of the gate to digitize our collection with the project’s funding, and we developed procedures and policies that others adopted when they started scanning their collections. We learned an incredible amount so fast. — Diane Rielinger, Co-director, MBLWHOI Library

Cathy was one of the most amazingly effective and fun people I have ever worked with. She was a larger-than-life-sized person. Cathy was held in very high repute in library circles: She put MBL in the world league of libraries. And the most important thing to her was family.
— Donald Lindberg, Director Emeritus, National Library of Medicine

Cathy was far ahead of the curve in the Woods Hole community with respect to electronic journals and databases and “informatics.” The community owes a great debt of gratitude to Cathy for her vision, leadership, and hard work that kept the MBLWHOI Library at the forefront of library science and services, and well poised for the future. I assume that by now Cathy has assumed leadership of the Celestial Library and Archives. If so, they are in for an exciting time in the Celestial Realm! — John Farrington, Dean Emeritus, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Cathy exemplified the “sanguine” temperament: open, caring, creative, bubbly, open to human beings but concerned about subject matter. Years ago, I asked her whether a journal should be published in print or digital formats. She said, “Do it both ways: for the present and for the future.” — Gerald Weissmann, Editor-in-Chief, The FASEB Journal and MBL Trustee Emeritus

My work with Cathy was a wonderful ride. We managed to be in the right place and time when new Internet technology came along and she found the money to wire the MBL. She enabled and supported me in the ability to discover and learn by doing, and she also gave me critical life lessons in how to lead a team. And Cathy always managed to have a lot of fun along the way. — David Remsen, director of MBL Marine Resources, who worked with Norton on MBL information systems (including the development of uBio) from 1991-2006

Cathy was a force of nature. The lessons she taught to all of us graduate students on the digital History of the MBL Project were a result of her indomitable spirit, pushing through every roadblock, and her joie de vivre. We carry these qualities forward in the project.
— Kate MacCord, project manager, MBL History Project

Cathy was exceedingly easy to love. She was an audacious friend. — John Monahan, family friend

I never met Cathy, but this is what I have heard about her: “inspirational but funny,” “very determined but kind,” “incredibly focused but managed to be positive.” These are the attributes we want to continue at MBL. — Hunt Willard, MBL President and Director

Audience members also shared their memories, many humorous, touching, or revealing of Norton’s “can-do” spirit. The memorial concluded with music performed by the Falmouth a capella group Notescape.

 

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