female Brachionus manjavacas rotifer with egg. Credit: Kristin Gribble

Female Brachionus manjavacas rotifer with egg. Credit: Kristin Gribble

Older mothers give birth to shorter-lived offspring, an observation Alexander Graham Bell made in humans in 1918 that has since been confirmed in several animal and plant species. But are there any beneficial effects of advanced maternal age on offspring? Kristin Gribble and David Mark Welch of the MBL’s Bay Paul Center and colleagues studied this question in the rotifer (B. manjavacas), a tiny aquatic animal that is becoming established as a model organism for aging research. Advanced maternal age, they found, reduced the lifespan, fecundity and size of offspring. However, if they put the mothers on a calorie restricted diet during pregnancy, it reduced the severity of these effects to varying degrees, depending on the type of caloric restriction (90 percent reduction in food given or alternating cycles of eating and fasting) and the gender of the offspring (lifespan of female offspring increased by about 17 percent, but lifespan of males did not change). Understanding the basis for these different maternal effects, the scientists say, may one day guide effective interventions to improve human health and life span. (Aging Cell, doi: 10.1111/acel.12217, 2014).


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One barometer of the weather is a plant’s seasonal cycles, such as the date when its leaves sprout in spring or drop off in fall. What these cyclic events, called plant phenology, might reveal about climate change is the focus of a long-term Brown-MBL study in a Martha’s Vineyard, Mass., forest.

An automated camera on a tower can record seasonal changes in overall leaf color, but photos might not always correspond to seasonal biochemical changes within leaves themselves. Credit: Marc Mayes/Brown University

An automated camera on a tower records seasonal changes in leaf color in a Martha’s Vineyard forest. Credit: Marc Mayes/Brown University

“Our overall goal is to understand the phenology of trees in a temperate, deciduous forest, and how it responds to climate change,” says MBL Ecosystems Center scientist Jianwu (Jim) Tang.

Tang and his collaborators have placed digital cameras on meteorological towers in the Vineyard’s Manuel F. Correllus State Forest, at the Nature Conservancy Hoft Farm Preserve, and in a private forest, and have been continuously capturing images of the trees and leaves since 2000.

They discovered recently that forest “greenness,” as captured by the digital images, does not necessarily correspond to direct measures of peak chlorophyll content in the leaves, which is an indicator of photosynthesis. (Photosynthesis levels, in turn, indicate rates of carbon absorption by the leaves, which is important information for modeling the impacts of climate change.) Their results are published online in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.

“While color of leaves is important information, we found it is not sufficient to derive the real phenology change,” says Tang. They needed to supplement the imaging data by collecting leaves on a weekly basis and measuring chlorophyll levels in the lab. “This is a warning for future study,” says Xi Yang, a graduate student in the Brown-MBL Partnership and Graduate Program and lead author on the new paper. Yi’s advisors are Tang and John F. Mustard, professor of geological sciences at Brown University.

For more information, please see this press release issued by Brown University.


Yang X, Tang J, Mustard J (2014) Beyond leaf color: comparing camera-based phenological metrics with leaf biochemical, biophysical and spectral properties throughout the growing season of a temperate deciduous forest. J. Geophys. Res. DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002460



The MBL hosted the annual Brown-MBL Partnership retreat, November 8-9 in Woods Hole. Thirty-six Brown undergraduate students visited MBL laboratories, the Marine Resources Center, the Semester in Environmental Science, and the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve to investigate research and internship opportunities at MBL.

The retreat featured a symposium, “Imaging Across Biology,” and a display organized by MBL Senior Scientist Rudolf Oldenbourg with contributions from Shinya Inoué (MBL), Louie Kerr (MBL), Mai Tran (MBL), and Jim McIlvain (Zeiss Inc.) and others that traced the history of microscopy at the MBL.

Rudolf Oldenbourg explains the principles of polarized light to Brown students visiting for the Brown-MBL Partnership retreat.


A thin crescent of ice was still on Eel Pond when Pablo Correa came to the MBL last March to begin shooting a video. Correa’s visit was exploratory: He knew he wanted to make a short documentary about the MBL, but hadn’t defined a focus beyond the diverse animals maintained in the Marine Resources Center. Correa spent several days shadowing David Remsen, manager of the Marine Resources Department, and his staff, and he took an early-season sail with them on the MBL’s collecting boat, the Gemma. He also observed several MBL scientists who use marine animals as model organisms in their research.

The video Correa ended up making, “These Eyes Follow the Moon,” is not a typical documentary. It is nearly wordless and impressionistic. Yet it also captures an essential “feeling” about the MBL. It moves from the wide-open spaces of the MBL’s ocean setting to the quiet, focused concentration in labs where instruments are prepared for the microscopic imaging of cells. The video also reflects the rhythm of Marine Resources just as the collecting season starts up in early spring. (The MBL collects marine organisms for biological research from April through December, with August being the high season when squid and many other species are collected daily. “August is also the time of year when anything unusual starts to show up in the nets,” Remsen says.)

Correa is editor of the science section of El Espectador, a daily newspaper with national circulation based in Bogotá, Colombia; and a free-lancer for, a network that publishes science news from developing countries. He was a fellow in MIT’s Knight Science Journalism program in 2012-2013.

Featured in this video are:

In the Marine Resources Center: Skate (Rajidae) at 0:06, 0:24 and 0:33; spider crabs (Libinia) at 3:30; scup (Stenotomus) at 3:40; spiny dogfish (Squalus ) at 4:10; seahorse (Hippocampus) at 4:16. At 4:30, Dave Remsen describes the eyes of the horseshoe crab (Limulus). At 5:30, cuttlefish (Sepiida) for the study of cephalopod camouflage in Roger Hanlon’s laboratory.

Movie of squid skin at 6:27 by Trevor Wardill and Paloma Gonzalez-Bellido: Confocal z-stack of squid skin, blue and green colors showing tissue auto fluorescence and Lucifer yellow forward filled neurons shifted to red using antibodies.

Gonzalez-Bellido PT and Wardill TJ (2012). Labeling and confocal imaging of neurons in thick invertebrate tissue samples. Cold Spring Harb Protoc: doi:10.1101/pdb.prot069625

Movie of dividing cells at 7:20 by James LaFountain and Rudolf Oldenbourg: The events of cell division during meiosis I in a living insect spermatocyte. Testes from the Crane fly Nephrotoma suturalis were observed with time-lapse liquid crystal polarized light microscopy (LC-PolScope, MBL, Woods Hole MA, and PerkinElmer, Hopkinton MA). Movie images display the naturally occurring birefringence of cell organelles and structures that are made up of aligned molecules, such as the meiotic spindle and mitochondria. Horizontal image width is 56 µm.

How does the surrounding light affect how strongly squid skin expresses iridescence? How is a fish’s diet altered by pollutant nitrogen in salt marshes? Why do some neurons regenerate after spinal cord injury, and others do not?  These and a host of other questions will be addressed Thursday, August 15, at the 2013 MBL Undergraduate Research Symposium, beginning at 8:50 AM in Lillie Auditorium.

web-REUnoyes5699Several students will be discussing the mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease), supported by a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Undergraduate Science Education grant. Others spent this summer at the MBL through the National Science Foundation’s Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU)  program. Thursday’s symposium was organized by the directors of the MBL-REU program, which is known as “Biological Discovery in Woods Hole.”

The full symposium schedule with abstracts is here. Come see what some of the MBL’s youngest scientists have discovered!




By Jane MacNeil

MBL Distinguished Scientist Shinya Inoué has been designated as the second Honorary Scholar within the Edward Sylvester Morse Institute at the University of Washington.

This designation honors Inoué’s interactions with the university’s Friday Harbor Laboratories (FHL) during the 1950s and beyond, and recognizes his considerable scholarly, research, and educational contributions to the imaging and understanding of cell development in marine organisms.

Friday Harbor Laboratories, the University of Washington’s marine station on San Juan Island. Photo courtesy University of Washington.

Friday Harbor Laboratories, the University of Washington’s marine station on San Juan Island. Photo courtesy University of Washington.

The award was bestowed on Inoué by M. Patricia (Trish) Morse, one of the co-founders of the E.S. Morse Institute’s scholarly exchange program between Japanese marine laboratories and the Friday Harbor Laboratories. Trish Morse is a distant relative of Morse’s and the first native of Woods Hole to receive a PhD in marine zoology.

Inoué’s connection to FHL began when, after graduating from Princeton with a Ph.D. in Biology in 1951, he took his first professional appointment as an Instructor in the Department of Anatomy at the University of Washington. During spring break of 1952, he drove two hours north and took the Puget Sound ferry to Friday Harbor for the first time where, to his delight, he was able to collect more than four species of jellyfish right off the dock in front of the lab. Furthermore, Inoué recalls, the lab had running seawater piped through Pyrex glass tubing that was so pure and free from excess heavy metal ions that not only sea urchins, but 100 percent of the jellyfish eggs, could be fertilized.

While at Princeton, Inoué had improved upon his hand-built polarized light microscope and in 1951 he used it to prove the universal existence of the spindle fibers, the dynamic protein filaments that move chromosomes in the dividing cells. This was his first major accomplishment in a career devoted to delving into the mysteries of living cells.

“In an attempt to better understand how cells divide, Dr. Inoué made a series of epochal innovations in the development of light microscopy,” said Emperor Akihito of Japan, in 2003, on the occasion of Inoué’s receipt of the International Prize for Biology. “These advances rendered it possible to directly observe dynamic changes in the supramolecular structure of living cells during cell division. This contributed immensely to advancing research in such fields of cell division, cytoskeleton, and cell motility,” the Emperor said. ”The products of Dr. Inoué’s research are widely utilized by researchers around the world and contribute immensely to the advancement of biological sciences.”

MBL Distinguished Scientist Shinya Inoué (front center) and some of the MBL-affiliated cell biologists and biophysicists whom he has influenced (l-r, by row): Ted Salmon and Kip Sluder; James LaFountain, Ron Vale, Gary Borisy, and Michael Shribak; Jason Swedlow, Conly Reider, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Tim Mitchison, and Gaudenz Danuser. Credit: Tom Kleindinst

MBL Distinguished Scientist Shinya Inoué (front center) and some of the MBL-affiliated cell biologists and biophysicists whom he has influenced (l-r, by row): Ted Salmon and Kip Sluder; James LaFountain, Ron Vale, Gary Borisy, and Michael Shribak; Jason Swedlow, Conly Reider, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Tim Mitchison, and Gaudenz Danuser. Credit: Tom Kleindinst

Inoué began coming to the MBL as a visiting investigator in the early 1950s, and became a year-round principal investigator in 1977. He was named MBL Distinguished Scientist in 1986.

The first recipient of the Edward Sylvester Morse Honorary Scholar award was Arthur H. Whiteley, a sea urchin developmental and cell biologist at the Friday Harbor Laboratories for more than 60 years. Previously, Whiteley had been a student of E. Newton Harvey’s at Princeton University, where he received his Ph.D. in 1945 and worked with Inoué’s mentor, Kenneth Cooper. While not classmates, Whiteley and Inoué did become friends while Inoué served as an Instructor at the University of Washington from 1951-1953. Whiteley and his wife, Helen, were both early exchange scholars in Japan and were active supporters of Japanese scholars working on developmental biology at the Friday Harbor Laboratories. Whiteley died in April of 2013 after a long life dedicated to science, education, and international collaboration.

Background on Edward Sylvester Morse

In the 1850s, Edward Sylvester Morse was a protégé of Louis Agassiz, then chair of Zoology and Geology at Harvard University. Under Agassiz’s direction, Morse studied marine biology and specialized in conchology. Morse became one of the leading natural scientists of his time and helped develop the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. Agassiz’s ties to the MBL include his founding of “a practical school of natural science, especially devoted to the study of marine zoology” on Penikese Island, an institution which is considered to be the precursor of MBL. Morse taught with Agassiz at the Penikese Island school in 1873 and later was a visiting scientist at the MBL.

Morse’s career focused on the study of brachiopods, bottom-dwelling marine animals that have two shells and are considered living fossils. In 1870, he published The Brachiopods, a Division of the Annelida, which attracted the attention of Charles Darwin. In 1876, he was named a fellow of the National Academy of Sciences. Three years later, he visited Japan in search of coastal brachiopods and became the first Professor of Zoology at the Tokyo Imperial University. At the end of his term, he recommended that the Japanese government hire, as his successor, Charles O. Whitman, later to become the founding director of the MBL. Whitman was Professor of Zoology at Tokyo Imperial University from 1879-1881, during which time he was the first professor to introduce systematic methods of biological research, including the use of microscopes, to Japanese students. Whitman went on to become head professor of the Department of Zoology at the University of Chicago where he used the same systematic methods of scientific research and teaching with his students.

While in Japan, Morse became very interested in Japanese ceramics, pottery, and the Japanese way of life. He was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1886 to 1889, and in 1892 he became the Keeper of Pottery at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, a position he held until his death in 1925. His collection of daily artifacts of the Japanese people can still be seen today at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Mass.

Similar to the Order of the Sacred Treasure (3rd class) that Inoué received from the Japanese government in 2010, Edward Sylvester Morse received the Order of the Rising Sun (3rd class) in 1914 and the Order of the Sacred Treasure (2nd class) in 1922.

By Aviva Hope Rutkin

ZIP12 RNA marked with blue dye in a frog brain. Credit: Mark Messerli, MBL

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For Immediate Release: June 27, 2013
Contact: Diana Kenney, Marine Biological Laboratory

WOODS HOLE, Mass.– A new study helps explain how parts of the brain maintain their delicate balance of zinc, an element required in minute but crucial doses, particularly during embryonic development.

The study, led at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) by Mark Messerli in collaboration with scientists from the University of California, Davis, shows that neural cells require zinc uptake through a membrane transporter referred to as ZIP12.. If that route is closed, neuronal sprouting and growth are significantly impaired and is  fatal for a developing embryo. Their discovery was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“This particular transporter is an essential doorway for many neurons in the central nervous system,” explains Messerli. “You knock out this one gene, this one particular pathway for the uptake of zinc into these cells, and you essentially prevent neuronal outgrowth. That’s lethal to the embryo.”

Previously, scientists thought that zinc could use more than one pathway to enter the cell during early brain development. Some other elements, like calcium, enjoy such luxury of multiple options.

Knocking out ZIP12, affected several critical processes in the brain, the scientists found. For example, frog embryos were unable to develop their neural systems properly. Additionally, neurons had trouble reaching out to connect to other neurons; their extensions were both shorter and fewer in number than normal.

“We were surprised that ZIP12 was required at such an early and critical stage of development,” said Winyoo Chowanadisai, a researcher in nutrition at the University of California at Davis and visiting scientist in the Cellular Dynamics Program at the MBL. Dr. Chowanadisai was the first on the team to realize that ZIP12 is expressed in such abundance in the brain.“This study also reinforces the importance of periconceptional and prenatal nutrition and counseling to promote health during the earliest stages of life.”

ZIP12 is part of a larger family of transporters involved in the movement of metal ions from outside the cell. Other reports showed that simultaneously blocking 3 other transporters in the family – including  ZIP1, 2, and 3 – had no major effects on embryonic development.

Zinc is needed for healthy neural development, helping the brain to learn and remember new information. However, too much zinc can also be problematic.

The research team is investigating the implications of their results on processes like embryonic brain development and wound healing.

“[The result] was not expected,” said Messerli, a physiologist in the MBL’s Bell Center for Regenerative Biology and Tissue Enginering and Cellular Dynamics Program. ““We found that zinc uptake through ZIP12 is a regulatory point for neuronal growth, required for development and possibly required for learning and memory throughout life. We want to elucidate the downstream targets that zinc is affecting. That’s the next exploration.” 

— Written by Aviva Hope Rutkin

Photo Caption

ZIP12 RNA marked with blue dye in a frog brain.


Chowanadisai W, Graham DM, Keen CL, Rucker RB and Messerli MA (2013) Neurulation and neurite extension require the zinc transporter ZIP12 (slc39a12). PNAS 110: 9903-9908.


The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is dedicated to scientific discovery and improving the human condition through research and education in biology, biomedicine, and environmental science. Founded in 1888 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, the MBL is an independent, nonprofit corporation.


By Aviva Hope Rutkin

Visiting scientist Guillermo Yudowski wants to make sea anemones happy.

Every morning, he arrives at his MBL laboratory and looks into a group of plastic tanks. Inside are samples of Aiptasia pallida, a hardy strain of anemone found in abundance near the University of Puerto Rico, where Yudowski conducts neurobiological research. Happy A. pallida, he says, are “colorful and open”; sad ones are closed and white. The white samples are near death and will only last three to four days in their containers.

Top view of a day-old spawned Porites spp. coral larvae. Composite image seen under a fluorescent microscope. Symbiotic zooxanthellae autofluorescence in red, larvae epidermis autofluorescence in green. Courtesy of Guillermo Yudowski.

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Turning white—becoming, in Yudowski’s words, “sad”—is called bleaching. The anemone’s tissues are home to zooxanthellae, vibrant photosynthetic algae that produce food for the anemone and give it a characteristic brown color. Bleaching expels this algae from their home. The bleaching process is thought to be triggered by stress: a decrease in light availability, for example, or changes in the water’s temperature or pH. And these changes don’t need to be dramatic. A difference of a couple degrees Celsius can be enough to effectively bleach an anemone.

Yodowski and his colleagues hope their research will point to a cost-effective treatment for bleaching, which poses a serious threat not only to anemones, but to the world’s coral reefs. Though anemones and corals are different, strategies that work for the one organism may be effective for another. The changing climate has already led to mass bleaching events in the Great Barrier Reef, as well as coral reefs in the Indian Sea, the Caribbean Sea, and the Florida Keys.

“If you read the literature, some say that all the coral is going to die in 50 years. Others say, maybe 50 to 100,” says Yudowski. “It doesn’t make a big difference.”

To move toward a solution, Yudowski wants to understand what’s happening to the anemones on a microscopic level. If we figure out why bleaching occurs on a cellular level, then perhaps we can discover how to stop it from happening altogether.

“We don’t really know much about the basic molecular mechanics of the process,” explains Yudowski. “We are trying to understand how stresses like increased ocean temperature and acidification induce the expulsion of the algae.”

Yudowski and his student, Michael Marty-Rivera, are treating anemones with antioxidant compounds found in red wine and green tea. Previous research shows that reactive oxygen species, a kind of chemically reactive molecule, can trigger the bleaching process. Yudowski and Marty-Rivera think that these antioxidants might be able to counteract the effects of these trigger molecules. They will test the efficacy of their treatments by measuring the amount of photosynthetic activity in the anemones, as well as the number of zooxanthellae present.

Yudowski and Marty-Rivera will spend two months at the MBL this summer before returning to the University of Puerto Rico where, in close collaboration with Professors Loretta Roberson and Joshua Rosenthal, they run several different coral research projects. They want to understand the mechanism of calcification in corals and how environmental variables, such as temperature and pH, impact corals’ ability to form reefs and maintain a healthy symbiosis with their zooxanthellae partners.

Funding for the research is provided by the Puerto Rico Center for Environmental Neuroscience and the National Science Foundation Center of Research Excellence in Science and Technology.

Some people prefer strong vertical lines in their clothing over horizontal ones, as they can appear slimming. As for cuttlefish? According to a new MBL study, when these marine creatures adaptively change their skin patterns for camouflage purposes, they respond to vertical visual cues in their environment more strongly than to horizontal cues.

A cuttlefish next to a checked wall pattern displays adaptive camouflage. Photo courtesy of Kim Ulmer, MBL

A cuttlefish next to a checked wall pattern displays adaptive camouflage.
Photo courtesy of Kim Ulmer, MBL

The study, led by Kimberly Ulmer and Roger Hanlon in the MBL’s Program in Sensory Physiology and Behavior, is published in the April issue of the Biological Bulletin.

Many prior experiments have shown the influence of two-dimensional (2D) substrates, such as sand and gravel habitats, on camouflage, yet many marine habitats have three-dimensional (3D) structures, such as rocks and coral, among which cuttlefish camouflage from predators. In this study, Ulmer and Hanlon tested the relative influence of horizontal versus vertical visual cues on cuttlefish camouflage. They found that visual stimuli in the vertical dimension (2D or 3D) have a stronger influence on changeable camouflage than do 2D stimuli presented horizontally. This effect is noteworthy because in many of the experiments, the vertical stimuli represented only a small proportion of the total visual surrounds, indicating that cuttlefish are selectively responding to vertical cues.

Such choices highlight the selective decision-making that occurs in cuttlefish as they determine their camouflage body patterns.


Ulmer KM, KC Buresch, MM Kossodo, LM Mathger, LA Siemann and RT Hanlon (2013) Vertical visual features have a strong influence on cuttlefish camouflage. Biological Bulletin 224: 110-118.

Senior Scientist Rudolf Oldenbourg and other MBL-affiliated biologists and physicists revealed their collaborative process to create informative, beautiful images of cell structure and behavior at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting last weekend in Boston, Mass.

The symposium “Innovations in Imaging: Seeing is Believing” was organized by Amy Gladfelter of Dartmouth College, an MBL Whitman Investigator.


Fluorescence image of a living cell (MDCK) expressing septin molecules linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP). The image was recorded with the Fluorescence LC-PolScope and shows fluorescent septin fibers in color, indicating that the fluorescence is polarized and the septin molecules are aligned in the fibers. Credit: Rudolf Oldenbourg/MBL

“We are beginning to understand the basis for cell organization at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution through the creative application of fundamental physics to microscopy,” Gladfelter stated. “This symposium will help motivate the next phase of interdisciplinary approaches to advance the visualization of life, from the scale of a single molecule to the whole organism.”

The data collected in biological images, Gladfelter noted, not only illuminates basic cellular processes, but is useful for medical purposes: to diagnose a metastasizing cancer or microbial infection, for example, or to screen chemical libraries for new pharmaceuticals.

“These images bring us to a beautiful world beyond the grasp of our normal senses,” Gladfelter stated. “In this way microscopes give us beauty and [biological or medical] application, often in the same image.”

The capacity of microscopes to reach beyond the senses is well appreciated by Oldenbourg, who spoke on New Frontiers in Polarized Light Microscopy for Live Cell Imaging.
(Oldenbourg’s MBL co-authors are Michael Shribak, Tomomi Tani, and Shinya Inoué.)

“Polarization is a basic property of light that is often overlooked, because the human eye is not sensitive to polarization. Therefore, we don’t have an intuitive understanding of it and optical phenomena that are based on polarization either elude us or we find them difficult to comprehend,” Oldenbourg stated.

“Like most scientific instruments, the polarized light microscope translates polarization effects so they can be perceived by our senses, in this case by our eyes, and makes them amenable to quantitative and analytical analysis. At the MBL, we are developing polarized light imaging techniques, including fluorescence polarization … for generating time-lapse images that clearly reveal the otherwise invisible dynamics of single molecules and molecular assemblies in organelles, cells, and tissues.”

The events of cell division during meiosis I in a living insect spermatocyte, beginning at diakinesis through telophase to the near completion of cytokinesis. Testes from the Crane fly Nephrotoma suturalis were observed with time-lapse liquid crystal polarized light microscopy (LC-PolScope, MBL, Woods Hole MA, and PerkinElmer, Hopkinton MA). Movie images display the naturally occurring birefringence of cell organelles and structures that are made up of aligned molecules, such as the meiotic spindle and mitochondria. Horizontal image width is 56 µm. Credits: James LaFountain and Rudolf Oldenbourg/MBL

Other talks in the symposium included:

Navigating the Dynamic Cell
Jennifer Lippincott-Swartz (National Institutes of Heath/MBL Physiology Course)

Imaging Three-Dimensional Dynamics in Cells and Embryos
Eric Betzig (Howard Hughes Medical Institute/MBL Physiology Course and MBL Neurobiology Course)

Structured Illumination and the Analysis of Single Molecules in Cells
Rainer Heintzmann (King’s College, London)

Imaging Single Cells in the Breast Tumor Microenvironment
John Condeelis (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)

Single Molecule Imaging in Live Cells
Amy S. Gladfelter (Dartmouth College/MBL Whitman Investigator)

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